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Dirk Rohmann

Christianity and the History of Violence in the Roman Empire

A Sourcebook

Verfügbarkeit: Auf Lager

Lieferzeit: 2-3 Tage

EAN/ISBN
9783838552859
1. 2019

Details

Das Buch präsentiert eine Vielzahl an Quellen des 1. bis 7. Jh.s., welche das Problem der religiösen Gewalt hinsichtlich der Christianisierung des Römischen Reiches und der germanischen Nachfolgestaaten veranschaulichen. Die Quellen werden in den Originalsprachen und neuen Übersetzungen dargeboten und sind mit Einleitungen, Kommentaren und Kurzbibliographien versehen.
  • CoverU1
  • Imprint4
  • Table of Contents5
  • Abbreviations11
  • Introduction13
  • 1. Early Christianity and the Roman Empire: The Age of Persecution (66-306)15
  • The Roman arena and the spectacle of power17
  • 1.1 Military roots of the games: Valerius Maximus on the need to provide spectacular punishment17
  • 1.2 The glory of fighting and dying in the arena: Livy 28.2118
  • 1.3 Why brutal spectacles can damage a philosophical character: Seneca, letter 719
  • 1.4 A Roman emperor’s delight in the bloodshed of the games: Cassius Dio 60.1320
  • 1.5 People are attracted by the violence of the arena but disgusted by violence in real life: Tertullian, On the Games, 21-221
  • The Jewish War (66-70) and the destruction of the Temple of Jerusalem23
  • 1.6 A Rabbinic account of the Roman Siege of Jerusalem: Babylonian Talmud, Gittin 5623
  • 1.7 The Romans destroy Jerusalem: Josephus, Jewish War24
  • 1.8 Speech of the Jewish rebel Eleazar urging mass suicide at Masada26
  • Private spells, public danger: magic and superstition28
  • 1.9 Romans fear the fatal power of magical curse tablets: Tacitus, Annals, on Germanicus and Piso (defixiones)28
  • 1.10 Astrologers expelled from Rome under Claudius: Tacitus, Annals, 12.5229
  • 1.11 The origin of foul heresy in Simon Magus, Acts 8.9-2430
  • 1.12 ‘Make him her slave’: A fiercely possessive love-spell invoking the God of Abraham31
  • Pagan martyrs of conscience33
  • 1.13 A political martyr under Nero: Tacitus on the Pisonian conspiracy33
  • 1.14 A freedwoman tortured but refusing to provide evidence under torture: Tacitus, Annals, 15.5734
  • Crime and punishment: condemnatio ad bestias and crucifixion35
  • 1.15 Condemnation to the beasts as a judicial punishment: Suetonius, Life of Caligula35
  • 1.16 The widow of Ephesus: a parody of resurrection? Petronius, Satyricon, 111-237
  • 1.17 400 slaves from a single household executed: Tacitus, Annals, 14.42-540
  • 1.18 ‘Atheists’ condemned to the wild beasts under Domitian: Cassius Dio 67.1442
  • ‘The instigation of Chrestus’: Jews and Christians in first-century Rome43
  • 1.19 The death of a first-century Jewish miracle-worker: Josephus, Jewish Antiquities, on Theudas43
  • 1.20 An emperor exiles the Jews from Rome: Suetonius, Life of Claudius, 25.443
  • 1.21 The Great Fire of Rome, Christian scapegoats, and the compassion of the populace: Tacitus, Annals, 15.3844
  • 1.22 A variant report on the Great Fire of Rome: Suetonius, Life of Nero, 3847
  • ‘Render unto Caesar’: The Christian debate on established authority48
  • 1.23 Christians should honour the emperor: First Letter of Peter 248
  • 1.24 A magic spell appealing to the power of ‘Chrestos’ in times of violence49
  • Discipline for difficult provincials: the Pliny–Trajan correspondence50
  • 1.25 A Roman governor asks the emperor’s advice about how to handle the Christians: Pliny, Letters, Book 1050
  • Christian debates with Jews and pagans53
  • 1.26 Vehement criticism of the heretic Marcion’s violent treatment of the Old Testament: Tertullian, Against Marcion, book 153
  • 1.27 Claim that Jews are cursing Christians: Justin Martyr, Dialogue with Trypho54
  • 1.28 A defence of Christianity against pagan accusations: Justin Martyr, First and Second Apology56
  • 1.29 A Christian demonises pagan religion: Minucius Felix, Octavius, 2758
  • 1.30 A Christian defence against charges of incest, cannibalism, and atheism: Athenagoras, A Plea for the Christians, 359
  • 1.31 The Jews as murderers of Christ: Melito of Sardis, On the Passover, 9960
  • 1.32 Christians are loyal to the emperor: Tertullian, Address to Scapula, 261
  • The Great Persecution and its aftermath63
  • 1.33 Persecution of Christians and the adversary of the emperor Constantine: Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History63
  • 2. An Emperor’s Dream: Christianity Takes Centre Stage (311-384)67
  • ‘By this sign you shall conquer’: Constantine’s conversion71
  • 2.1 The emperor Constantine seeks and finds a more powerful god for battlefield success: Eusebius, Life of Constantine71
  • 2.2 Battlefield opportunism or penance for a murdered son? Later interpretations of Constantine’s conversion: Sozomen, Ecclesiastical History, 1.3-574
  • Divine punishment76
  • 2.3 Wrath of God directed at pagans: Lactantius, A Treatise on the Anger of God, 23-476
  • 2.4 Wrath of God directed at persecuting pagan rulers and Galerius’ edict of toleration: Lactantius, On the Deaths of the Persecutors, 5 & 33-478
  • Laws of the Constantinian dynasty81
  • 2.5 The cessation of religious violence: Lactantius, On the Deaths of the Persecutors, 48, on the so-called Edict of Milan of Constantine and Licinius81
  • 2.6 The continuation of religious violence – the excesses of certain pagans: Eusebius, Life of Constantine, 384
  • 2.7 ‘Let superstition cease’: a law prohibiting all pagan religious activity, Theodosian Code, 16.1085
  • Arguments between Christians86
  • 2.8 Arius’ condemnation: Sozomen, Ecclesiastical History86
  • Julian: the last pagan emperor89
  • 2.9 Christian judgment of the motivation for a pagan emperor’s overtures of toleration: Gregory of Nazianzus, Oration 489
  • 2.10 Christians accused of arson: Ammianus Marcellinus on the fire in the temple of Daphne near Antioch90
  • Magic trials91
  • 2.11 Philosophers accused of treason and magic: Ammianus Marcellinus 29.291
  • 2.12 A later account of the magic trials: Zosimus, New History93
  • Altar of Victory95
  • 2.13 A war of words over the altar of Victory: Symmachus, Third Relatio & Ambrose, Letters 17 & 1895
  • 3. The Road to Christendom: Christianity from Theodosius to the Fall of Rome (379-476)99
  • Ambrose and Theodosius102
  • 3.1 Massacre and penance: a power struggle between bishop and emperor (1): Ambrose, Letter 40 to Theodosius102
  • 3.2 Massacre and penance: a power struggle between bishop and emperor (2):Sozomen, Ecclesiastical History, 7, on Ambrose and Theodosius107
  • 3.3 Massacre and Penance: a power struggle between bishop and emperor (3):Theodoret, Ecclesiastical History, 5, on Theodosius’ Massacre at Thessalonikeand Ambrose’s response108
  • Thessalonike and Ambrose’s response108
  • 3.4 Legal restraints to acquire knowledge, Theodosian Code, 16.10112
  • Destruction of cult sites114
  • 3.5 The problem of temple destruction from a pagan standpoint: Libanius, Oration 30114
  • 3.6 A Christian bishop rails against paganism: John Chrysostom, Homily on the Acts of the Apostles 4116
  • 3.7 Militant monks impose order in Antioch at the expense of philosophers: Chrysostom, On the Statues 17118
  • 3.8 A Christian view of pagan rituals: Prudentius, Peristephanon 10119
  • 3.9 A Christian saint fells pagan trees: Sulpicius Severus, Life of Martin, 13123
  • 3.10 A Christian bishop hails the end of paganism: Theodoret, Curatio, 8125
  • Arguments between Christians: Priscillian and the Donatist controversy126
  • 3.11 A trial over religious deviance ends in execution: Sulpicius Severus’ Chronicle126
  • 3.12 Christians martyred by Christians: “persecution of heretics” in North Africa: Acts of the Abitinian Martyrs and A Sermon on the Passion of the Holy Donatus and Advocatus127
  • 3.13 Competing for the moral high ground in the Donatist controversy: Augustine, Letters 173 & 88130
  • Enforcing orthodoxy133
  • 3.14 Legal punishments for heresy: Theodosian Code, 16.5133
  • 3.15 The cross: torture instrument turned symbol of salvation: John Chrysostom, Demonstration against the Pagans, 10135
  • 3.16 The tomb of the martyrs is like a warrior camp: John Chrysostom, On Saint Barlaam137
  • 3.17 Christian soldiers violate sacred space in churches: John Chrysostom, Letter to Innocent, Bishop of Rome 1138
  • 3.18 Heretics persecute true Christians by their very existence: Augustine, City of God, 18.51139
  • 3.19 ‘A thousand terrors of the law’ wielded against pagans by a Christian emperor: Novels of Theodosius, 3.8140
  • Jews141
  • 3.20 Christian polemic against the Jews: John Chrysostom141
  • 3.21 Christian laws against the Jews: Codex Theodosianus, 16.8143
  • Augustine on violence144
  • 3.22 The value of hell-fire: Augustine, On the Nature of the Good, 38144
  • 3.23 A defence of Rome’s military downfall: Augustine, City of God, 1145
  • 3.24 The practical problems of a physical resurrection: Augustine, City of God, 21 & 22146
  • A martyr of philosophy: Hypatia of Alexandria148
  • 3.25 The destruction of the Alexandrian temple to the god Serapis: Rufinus of Aquileia, Ecclesiastical History, book 11148
  • 3.26 A female philosopher, Hypatia, is murdered in Alexandria: Socrates, Ecclesiastical History151
  • 3.27 Another view of the murder of Hypatia: Damascius, Life of Isidore154
  • 4. Men of Arms and Men of God: Latin Europe after the Fall of Rome (476-751)157
  • Unwelcome guests: Alaric the Goth, Geiseric the Vandal, and Attila the Hun160
  • 4.1 The desecration of churches and the execution of clerics during the Vandal conquest of Africa: Victor of Vita, History of the Vandal Persecutions, book 1160
  • 4.2 The Persians and the Huns as a divine scourge: Isidore of Seville, History of the Goths, 28-29161
  • Banishing demons and spreading the gospel162
  • 4.3 Omitting a warlike book to discourage warlike tendencies: Philostorgius, Ecclesiastical History162
  • 4.4 The plague as God’s punishment: Gregory of Tours, Histories, 10.1163
  • 4.5 A Christian evangelist destroys pagan religious artefacts: Jonas of Bobbio, Life of Columbanus and Life of Vedast165
  • 4.6 Red blood on white garments: the slaughter of the newly baptised: Saint Patrick, Letter to Coroticus167
  • 4.7 Saint Patrick confronts the magicians: Muirchu, Life of Saint Patrick168
  • The Church and public order171
  • 4.8 Correcting the common people: Martin of Braga, On the Correction of the Uninstructed171
  • 4.9 A bishop confronts a violent holy man in Merovingian Tours: Gregory of Tours, Histories, 10.25172
  • 4.10 The forced conversion of Jews by Avitus of Clermont: Gregory of Tours, Histories, 5.11175
  • 4.11 The vengeance of the martyr Pancratius176
  • 4.12 A thief is rescued from a stern judge177
  • 4.13 A virgin’s valour in the face of force: The Life of Austreberta, 2178
  • 4.14 Red, white and blue martyrdom in early medieval Ireland: Cambrai Homily180
  • 4.15 Miracle cures at the grave of a royal martyr: Bede, Ecclesiastical History, book 3181
  • Struggling with the flesh: asceticism and monasticism183
  • 4.16 Battling demons in the desert: Athanasius, Life of Antony, 6-7 & 22-23183
  • 4.17 ‘Thinking little of his son’s tears’: an ascetic father mistreats his son, John Cassian, Institutes, book 4185
  • 4.18 The battle of the church against ‘heresy’: Prudentius, Psychomachia, 705-25187
  • 4.19 The extremity of asceticism: Baradatus lives in a box, Theodoret, History of the Monks in Syria, 27188
  • 4.20 Monks fighting the devil in the desert: The Rule of Saint Benedict, 1 on advanced monks189
  • 4.21 Day to day physical punishment in the Rule of Columbanus190
  • 4.22 Self-mortification and the power to heal: Venantius Fortunatus, Life of the Holy Radegund 1.20 & 25191
  • 4.23 Bringing up children under monastic discipline: Common Rule 6192
  • Justinian’s religious policies194
  • 4.24 Defining, prohibiting and punishing heresy by law: Codex Justinianus, 1.5194
  • 4.25 The emperor Justinian bans pagan teaching and philosophy: John Malalas, book 18195
  • 4.26 Inquisitions under Justinian and the burning of pagan literature: Anonymous, Life of Simeon Stylites the Younger, 161 & 164196
  • 4.27 Reconquest justified in the name of true religion and political liberty: Novels of Justinian, 78.4.1198
  • 4.28 The miraculous survival of a mason thrown from on high by Satan: John of Ephesus, Ecclesiastical History199
  • 4.29 Justinian – fair or foul? Two opinions, one author: Procopius, Buildings and Secret History200